Fluid filled sac that occurs within or on the surface of an ovary is called ovarian cyst. Usually ovarian cyst is a harmless condition. Many women having ovarian cyst remain asymptomatic. Ovarian cyst may disappear on its own after few months. Occasionally ovarian cyst may burst or may start leaking due to rupture in its wall. Sometimes rupture of ovarian cyst may produce severe symptoms which will require immediate medical attention.
Ovarian cyst is found in women of age group of thirty to sixty. Ovarian cyst can be single or multiple occurring in one or both the ovaries.
When follicle ruptures to release an ovum, it produces large quantities of oestrogen and progesterone for conception. Such follicle is called as corpus luteum. Sometimes there is blockage in the opening from where egg is released and fluid accumulates in the follicle leading to corpus luteum cyst. Other types of ovarian cysts include endometriomas, dermoid cyst and cystadenomas.
One of the complications of ovarian cyst is its rupture which may cause internal bleeding.
Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Causes
- Ovarian cyst may grow in size gradually causing weakening of its wall and such ovarian cyst may rupture on its own.
- Ovarian cyst may rupture due to external pressure on the cyst. External pressure can be due to injury to abdomen, intercourse, exercises that increase intra-abdominal pressure, pregnancy or due to pressure of neighbouring organs on the cyst.
Symptoms Of Ruptured Ovarian Cyst
- The patient experiences sudden and severe pain in the abdomen.
- Pain in abdomen is associated with bloated feeling in abdomen.
- Weakness and fatigue is felt.
- Sometimes there can be fever due to secondary infection.
- There will be nausea and vomiting.
- Vaginal spotting may be present.
- Internal bleeding may cause fluctuation in blood pressure, cold clammy skin and patient may go in shock. The patient may also faint.
- Pain during intercourse.
- Bowel movements are painful.
- Ruptured ovarian cyst may take long time to heal and can cause irregular and painful menses.
Diagnosis: Diagnosis is done on the basis of medical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound may help to see ruptured ovarian cyst.
Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Treatment
Treatment of ruptured ovarian cyst depends on various factors. It depends on severity of your symptoms and extent of damage caused due to ruptured cyst and associated complications.
- In severe cases hospitalization is required to stabilize the patient.
- Antibiotics are given to prevent secondary infection. Medication is given to relieve pain in abdomen.
- If patient is very unstable culdocentesis is done to determine the type and extent of fluid in abdominal cavity.
- Oral contraceptives are given to prevent ovulation and to prevent further cyst formation.
- Regular abdominal examination is done manually as well as by ultrasound.
- Haemorrhagic cyst will require surgical removal of the cyst. Postoperative care includes foot and leg exercises to prevent blood clots. Patient will be asked to avoid intercourse for few weeks and patient is not allowed to use tampons.
Get your regular check up done if you are aware of your ovarian cyst which will help to monitor the growth of the cyst and timely required treatment can be given to prevent any complications.