Signs And Symptoms Of Ectopic Pregnancy: Its Treatment Options

The uterus is the ideal site of implantation for optimal pregnancy outcomes, but not all fertilized eggs end up in the uterine walls. Women must determine ectopic pregnancy symptoms upon planning for the course of gestation.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of gestation located outside the uterine cavity, and the implantation occurs at a site other than the endometrium. Because almost all ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tubes, this is also termed as tubal pregnancy. There are a few factors that are said to contribute to ectopic pregnancies. These include:

  • Maternal age and race
  • Uterine curettage
  • Previous tubal surgery
  • Endometriosis
  • History of pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Elective sterilizations being reversed at a later date.
  • Surgical corrections of fallopian tube occlusions.
  • Renal disease of transplant.

Symptoms Of Ectopic Pregnancy

The woman may report the following clinical manifestations:

  • Abdominal or pelvic pain. This is regarded as the most common symptom of ectopic pregnancy.
  • Irregular vaginal bleeding. The blood is usually dark and scanty.
  • Amenorrhea or absence of menstruation.
  • Abdominal tenderness on palpation.
  • Uterine size is similar to what it would be in a normally implanted pregnancy.
  • Shoulder pain.
  • Increased anxiety and pulse.
  • Nausea, vomiting, faintness, or vertigo and syncope with abdominal pain may develop.
  • Pelvic examination reveals a pelvic mass, posterior or lateral to the uterus.
  • The woman experiences cervical pain on movement of the cervix.

Treatment Options For Ectopic Pregnancy

There are no remedies that can help continue the pregnancy. All methods involve removal of the fetus from the affected site. The pregnancy should be terminated because it may lead to the rupture of the place of implantation, such as fallopian tube.

Almost all women who have experienced this may have increased chances to experience succeeding cases of ectopic pregnancies. This may eventually cause severe bleeding and lead to death.

  • Conservative therapy involves the use of a contraction-inducing medication to help expel the fetus.
    This is chosen if the patient desires future childbearing. The medication is given intramuscularly every other day. This can only be done if there is no active bleeding, and the ectopic size is 4 cm or less.
  • A woman has to undergo surgery once the conditions for conservative therapy are not met. This may also involve removal of some reproductive parts.
  • Whatever the treatment may be, the patient must be adequately hydrated with fluids, and some may even need blood transfusion.
  • The woman must report succeeding signs and symptoms of complication. These include cases of increased or malodorous vaginal discharge, abdominal pain, and fever.

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