High blood pressure is a major risk factor for development of cardiac disease and stroke. Our blood pressure fluctuates constantly and you may find variations in your blood pressure even if it is taken 5 minutes apart. There are many factors that can influence your blood pressure to change each day. Sudden high blood pressure can also be related to your psychological status, besides any physical cause. It may also depend on the time, either day or night.
If your blood pressure has remained within normal limits throughout your life, an episode of sudden high of blood pressure may come to its normal in many cases.
Symptoms Of Sudden Rise In Blood Pressure
Sudden rise in blood pressure can become a hypertensive emergency. Sometime critical elevation of blood pressure (e.g. Diastolic BP > 130mmof Hg and Systolic BP > 220mm of Hg) may warrant urgent lowering of blood pressure in a hospital set up to prevent acute cardiac as well as neurological crisis. However, high blood pressure of longer duration may be cause gradual damage to the vital organs of the body.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is largely detected during routine checkup. When there is sudden and unpredicted rise of blood pressure, it may be associated with symptom such as,
- Sudden bleeding from the nose without any reason in a person who has no previous history of nose bleeding.
- Early morning headache. Headache in the occipital (heaviness of head at the base of the skull) region.
- Chest compression and palpitation.
- Blurred vision.
- Small cerebro -vascular stroke may damage the brain and loss of coordination may occur.
- There may be transient ischemic attacks.
- Sudden high blood pressure can lead to brain hemorrhage.
- Nausea and vomiting.
What Causes Sudden High Blood Pressure?
Here are some of the causes of sudden increase in blood pressure:
Our knowledge for finding the causative factors of sudden high blood pressure is far from complete. Researchers believe there is strong genetic and familial predisposition. Certain modifiable factors have also been identified.
- Alcohol and caffeine: excess of alcohol intake or caffeine intake causes rise in your blood pressure. Other drugs that can cause sudden rise of blood pressure include cocaine, and narcotic drugs. Certain prescription drugs such as steroids, nasal decongestants, antidepressants and contraceptive pills can also cause sudden rise of blood pressure.
- Salt intake: increase of salt intake in your diet can have its effect on your blood pressure and cause rapid rise in your pressure. Excess of salt in food can cause constriction of the blood vessels leading to high blood pressure.
- Stress is another reason for sudden high blood pressure. When a person is stressed out of proportion, his body releases stress hormones. This hormones act on the heart and the blood vessels to contract, causing rise in blood pressure and heart palpitation.
- Weight gain seems to be a major controllable factor for sudden high blood pressure. It is estimated that 70 percent of hypertension in men and 60 percent of high blood pressure in women is attributed to obesity, especially abdominal obesity.
- Pain: sudden pain especially due to accidents can raise your blood pressure.
- Many times sudden high blood pressure is encountered in pregnant women. If it is found, they should contact their physician immediately.
- High blood pressure can result from kidney diseases. The narrowing of kidney arteries is the main factor for causing hypertension of sudden origin.